variance in sense of coherence

1a. How much of the variance in sense of coherence is explained independently by: (a) age; (b) social anxiety (the variable “socanx”); (c) perceived physical health (physhealth); (d) perceived mental health (menthealth)?
1b. How do you interpret the results for each of the four analyses? (4p)

2a. How much variance in sense of coherence can we explain if we use all four predictors simultaneously?
2b. Which variable explain most variance and how do you test this?
2c. What is the association of each predictor and the dependent variable when we control for the other three?
2d. Does the association between each predictor and sense of coherence differ between this analysis and the ones conducted in question 1? If so, why? (4p)

3. There is reason to believe that perceived mental health will be, too some extent, explained by score in sense of coherence. A relevant question is for whom and when this association is stronger or weaker? Test if this association is moderated by: (a) gender; (b) age; or (c) social anxiety (socanx). Report and interpret the results. Illustrate the results with simple slope graphs (3p)

4a. A researcher (lets call him Magnus) wants to test the idea that people’s perception of their body and what they can do with it (physself) which is called physical self-perception in the literature, affects their perceived physical health (physhealth). He also has an idea that a mechanism behind this association is how often they exercise (exfreq). Use the data to test this mediational model and report the results.
4b. A colleague of Magnus (let’s call her Pernilla) argues that there is a main problem with the mediation analysis of the model in 4a and more specifically the conclusions that can be drawn, from a more general design perspective. What problem is Pernilla most likely referring to?
4c). Pernilla instead suggests an alternative model, where people ́s physical health (physhealth) affects the way they perceived themselves physically (physself), and that this relation is mediated by how often they exercise (exfreq). Test this model and report the results.
4d. How do you interpret the results of the two different mediation models in 4a and 4c? (4p)

5. Pernilla would also like to suggest yet another model predicting people’s physical health. She is mostly concerned about understanding why people perceive their health to be “fine” or “poor” (i.e., using a dichotomized variable where the response categories “very bad”, “bad”, and “neither bad nor good” are considered as indicative of “poor health” whereas the response categories “good” and “very good” are considered indicative of “ok health”. She would now like to know if physical health can be predicted using the variables exercise frequency, stress and sense of coherence.
a. Test this model and report the results.
Magnus argues that we need to control for the effects of gender and age.
b. Rerun the model controlling for the effects of gender and age. Does this influence the results? How do you interpret this difference/lack of difference? (5p)

6. Describe a research situation where Multilevel Models (MLM) are a reasonable alternative for data analyses. Specify the research questions, hypotheses to be tested, study design, and planned data collection. Provide a detailed argumentation for why it would be preferable to use MLM instead of other analytical methods (e.g., some form of General Linear Models (GLM)).

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