Rethinking of work

Please answers the following questions after reading the article, without using any sources

 Do you agree that Adam Smith was wrong in saying that we work for money?
 is it wrong to work for money?
 our drive for money come from our nature or nurtured through our culture?
 who is likely to be bored with life: hard working or idle person? why?
 if you do not find a job you like, how can you like what you have?

Rethinking of work
By BARRY SCHWARTZAUG. 28, 2015
HOW satisfied are we with our jobs?
Gallup regularly polls workers around the world to find out. Its survey last year found that almost 90
percent of workers were either “not engaged” with or “actively disengaged” from their jobs. Think
about that: Nine out of 10 workers spend half their waking lives doing things they don’t really want to
do in places they don’t particularly want to be.
Why? One possibility is that it’s just human nature to dislike work. This was the view of Adam Smith,
the father of industrial capitalism, who felt that people were naturally lazy and would work only for
pay. “It is the interest of every man,” he wrote in 1776 in “The Wealth of Nations,” “to live as much at
his ease as he can.”
This idea has been enormously influential. About a century later, it helped shape the scientific
management movement, which created systems of manufacture that minimized the need for skill
and close attention — things that lazy, pay-driven workers could not be expected to have.
Today, in factories, offices and other workplaces, the details may be different but the overall situation
is the same: Work is structured on the assumption that we do it only because we have to. The call
center employee is monitored to ensure that he ends each call quickly. The office worker’s
keystrokes are overseen to guarantee productivity.
I think that this cynical and pessimistic approach to work is entirely backward. It is making us
dissatisfied with our jobs — and it is also making us worse at them. For our sakes, and for the sakes
of those who employ us, things need to change.
To start with, I don’t think most people recognize themselves in Adam Smith’s description of wage-
driven idlers. Of course, we care about our wages, and we wouldn’t work without them. But we care
about more than money. We want work that is challenging and engaging, that enables us to exercise
some discretion and control over what we do, and that provides us opportunities to learn and grow.
We want to work with colleagues we respect and with supervisors who respect us. Most of all, we

want work that is meaningful — that makes a difference to other people and thus ennobles us in at
least some small way.
We want these things so much that we may even be willing to take home a thinner pay envelope to
get them. Lawyers leave white-shoe firms to work with the underclass and underserved. Doctors
abandon cushy practices to work in clinics that serve poorer areas. Wall Street analysts move to
Washington to work as economic advisers in government.
You might object that those are examples of professionals — people who have the financial security
to care about more than just their paychecks and the privilege of working in fields in which it is
possible to find meaning and personal satisfaction. What about the janitor? The phone solicitor? The
hairdresser? The fast-food worker?
I submit that they, too, are looking for something more than wages. About 15 years ago, the Yale
organizational behavior professor Amy Wrzesniewski and colleagues studied custodians in a major
academic hospital. Though the custodians’ official job duties never even mentioned other human
beings, many of them viewed their work as including doing whatever they could to comfort patients
and their families and to assist the professional staff members with patient care. They would joke
with patients, calm them down so that nurses could insert IVs, even dance for them. They would
help family members of patients find their way around the hospital.

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