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Discuss the mastication or chewing of food in the mouth; how the teeth, tongue and salivary glands are important in this process. Consider how eating too quickly or poor chewing of food can affect the ingestion of food.
The epithelium tissue lining the pharynx and the oesophagus is stratified epithelium; why is this type of epithelium found here? If someone has regular gastric reflux what effect can this have on the lining of the oesophagus?
The stomach is described as a J-shaped organ; two important layers in the stomach are the muscular layer and the mucosal lining layer. The muscles are important in mechanical digestion of food; discuss how they contribute to this process. Secreted from the lining of the stomach is hydrochloric acid (HCl) with a pH of 1 3. Discuss how the structures of the mucosal lining contribute to the process of digestion in the stomach.
Crohn’s disease is an auto-immune disease that affects the lining of the intestines, in particular the small intestine. The villi lining the small intestine are damaged; explain the impact this damage has on the individual sufferer.
Enid is a 65 year old woman who went to her doctor with blood in her stools, a change in bowel habit with more frequent and looser stools, and abdominal pain. She has been diagnosed with colon cancer or cancer of the large intestine. On taking her patient history, Enid revealed that she regularly eats a high meat/ low fibre diet and is a smoker. Discuss how her diet affected the normal functioning of her large intestine, and why it put her at risk of getting colon cancer?
The liver is composed of minute functional units called liver lobules illustrated in the diagram below. Discuss in detail how the structures (hepatocytes, hepatic portal vein, kupffer cells, bile ducts and sinusoids) assist the liver to carry out the role of assimilation and detoxification
Explain the exocrine and endocrine role of the pancreas giving examples of substances produced, and their contribution to the process of digestion.
3.1 Discuss the role of micro and macro-nutrients in the human body noting their importance in a balanced diet. Give the basic structure of these substances.
3.2, 4.1 Johnny is a ten year old boy who has been diagnosed with fatty liver and obesity. The factors that have contributed to the development of this condition have been a diet which included fried food, processed food and fizzy drinks. What advice would the consultant have given to Johnny and his parents about losing weight and reducing the level of fat in his liver? Devise a healthy eating plan for Johnny; in your diet plan you should explain which type of foods he should be eating for his age to assist his growth and development, as well as helping him reduce his weight and levels of fat.
3.2, 4.1 Doreen is a 60 year old woman who has been diagnosed with osteoporosis and high blood pressure. Devise a healthy diet plan for Doreen which will provide her with a balanced diet that will help improve her osteoporosis and high blood pressure as well as provide her with a balanced diet for her age.
3.2, 4.1, 4.2 Michael is a 24 year old man who has type 1 diabetes. Explain the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes; how did Michael get type 1 diabetes, what signs and symptoms would he have presented with? Explain the treatments for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Devise a diet plan for Michael that will help him to control his diabetes
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