CJ 422 Final essay exam

CJ 422 (Spring 2022)
Final Essay Exam
Please review the Syllabus, as well as the Guidelines, Expectations and Grading
Rubrics for the Essay Exams, and follow the instructions below:
 Please include a cover sheet with the course title, a sub-title of “Final Essay Exam,”
and the date of submission.
 Do not include your name, PID number, or any other identifier anywhere in the exam.
 There are three options for questions for each module from Modules 7-12. Select and
respond to one question from each module, for a total of six responses.
 Please don’t repeat or restate the questions, as Turnitin will “hit” on those as if
they were quotes. Just indicate the corresponding question number for each
response (i.e., #2, 4, 9, 12, 14, 16) so that I can easily match up your responses with
the proper questions.
 Your responses should be clear, complete, succinct and substantive, addressing all of
the main themes, elements or sub-questions in each overall question selected.
 Your own critical thinking and analysis should be supported by evidence of some
research in appropriate sources such as assigned or supplementary sources used in this
course, or from other scholarly/authoritative sources found in your own research, with
source attribution and in-text citations in proper APA or MLA format for all
conclusions, statements of fact, quotations, ideas or other supporting content.
 Please do not cite my PowerPoint presentations, or any comments from others in
Packback discussions, although you may repeat or expand on some of your own
comments from the discussions with no need for citations.
 This is not a research paper, so please don’t overdo it in terms of citations. One or two
per response would suffice. At the same time, while I want to see what you think about
these topics, I’m not looking merely for opinions; rather, well-reasoned arguments or
assertions supported by evidence with citations from authoritative sources.
 I recommend that you submit drafts of your exams into the Assignment folder dropbox
to generate an Originality Report with a Similarity score. If that score is much higher
than 10-15%, you should consider revising your responses before submitting a final
version by the deadline. You can submit multiple revised versions until the due date.
All versions will be saved in the dropbox. Please identify the final version in the title.
 Do not reproduce lists, tables, charts, graphs, figures or images in the essay exams.
 Please include a single overall list of References or Works Cited at the end of the exam
rather than piecemeal after each response, with full citations in proper APA or MLA
 Remember, there should be at least one in-text citation corresponding with each full
citation in the list of References or Works Cited, and each in-text citation should match
up clearly with a full citation at the end.
 Make sure to follow a single, correct, consistent citation style for both in-text citations
in your responses and full citations in the list of References or Works Cited; don’t
“mix-and-match” APA with MLA or other styles in the same exam.

 Proofread and edit your replies for organization, coherence, sentence structure,
grammar and spelling. You will also be able to access the ETS/e-rater feature
connected with the Originality Report, which will highlight possible problems for
 Your responses should be in Times New Roman, size 11 or 12 font, and may be either
single or double-spaced.
 Please include pagination (i.e., insert sequential page numbers).
 Your completed exam should total approximately 6-12 pages (a minimum of one page,
or about 250-300 words per response—and a maximum of two pages per response),
excluding the cover sheet and list of References or Works Cited.
 Submit the completed exam as a MS Word doc attachment in the dropbox provided in
D2L no later than 5 p.m. on Friday, May 6, which marks the end of spring semester.
Earlier submissions will be appreciated. Please indicate in the file title or notes box if it
is your final version so I’ll know it’s OK to score. Requests for extensions must be
approved in advance.
Module 7: An International Perspective on Policing
1.) Considering all the “turf battles,” tensions and inefficiencies that arise in the
decentralized American police system, do you think that the U.S. should consider some
form of national or federal policing, or perhaps adopt some features of the Canadian
system? Why or why not?
2.) What do you think causes police corruption or misconduct? Is it that bad people are
attracted to the job in the first place, or is there something about the job or police culture
that can corrupt otherwise good people? Officials in some countries believe that hiring
more women as police officers will reduce misconduct and corruption because women
are less prone to the kinds of behavior usually involved with police corruption and
misconduct. Do you believe there is any merit or validity in this approach? Why or why
not? Are there other, alternate approaches, policies or programs that you feel would be
more effective at reducing police misconduct or corruption? Is there such a thing as a
“police personality,” and what does that mean to you?
3.) As mentioned in Reichel’s book, a number of countries (e.g., France, Italy, Spain,
Turkey) have Gendarmeries–military police with civil police authority and jurisdiction–
in addition to other national police forces. What do you see as the pros and cons of this
type of police force? Do you think this type of police force could ever be accepted and
effective in the United States? Why or why not?
Module 8: An International Perspective on Courts
4.) Many civil legal tradition countries, and even England and Wales, rely heavily on
laypeople as judges or jurists, or as full partners with professional judges on the bench. In
contrast, the American system relies on professional judges as triers of law, but allows
lay juries to serve as triers of fact. What are the pros and cons of each system?
5.) Reichel raises the issue in the “You Should Know” box on p. 196 that American jurors
in some states are prohibited from posing questions to witnesses in trial, either directly, or
through the judge. Some states allow questioning, but discourage it. Do you think that
members of juries should be allowed or even encouraged to ask questions? Why or why
6.) Identify and explain examples of some of the most significant, and perhaps surprising
(to you), differences between the American criminal justice system and the systems in
some other countries regarding each of the following areas:
 Prosecution
 Defense Counsel
 Training, education and or selection of lawyers and judges
 Court organization
Are there any models, approaches, or examples in these areas that the United States
should consider adapting for implementation in our own criminal justice system?
Module 9: An International Perspective on Corrections
7.) The U.S. has retained and uses capital punishment as a sanction in the federal criminal
justice system and in half of the states, whereas half the countries in the world have
abolished the death penalty by law, or in practice. We also use imprisonment, including
long terms of incarceration, for serious offenses much more than fines or other,
noncustodial sanctions for serious offenses as compared to many countries. Why do you
think this is so, and what are the implications or consequences for American society, and
our image in the world? What would you recommend regarding the use of capital
punishment in the American criminal justice system? What do you think about the
efficacy of using noncustodial sanctions or approaches such as community service,
probation, treatment or restorative justice instead of imprisonment for drug offenses, or
other serious—but non-violent—offenses such as financial or property crimes? Are these
sanctions “just?” Which goal(s) or purpose(s) of legal punishment do these measures
satisfy, and how?
8.) Reichel discusses special issues pertaining to the imprisonment of women in the U.S.
and other countries, including how best to maintain relationships between imprisoned
women and their children, and the poor conditions and lack of services for women
inmates around the world. What special accommodations or provisions, if any, do you
feel should be made for women inmates–especially those with infants or children? What
special needs should be acknowledged, and what special programs, services, or
conditions should be afforded women prisoners that may not be necessary for men?
Support your views with examples, evidence and logical arguments.
9.) In the “You Should Know!” box on p. 230, Reichel examines the practice of “secret
executions” in Japan, where it is argued that short notice of death sentences being carried
out is preferable because knowing the specific date long in advance is too emotionally
disturbing for the condemned prisoners. What is your reaction to this practice? Is this
approach more, or less humane than, say, the practice in the U.S. where prisoners may
spend years on death row–knowing their scheduled execution date the entire time?
Explain and defend your viewpoint.
Module 10: An International Perspective on Juvenile Justice
10.) Which view or approach to juvenile justice do you find most compelling (i.e., which
do you agree with): That social welfare, treatment and protection of juveniles should be
the foremost or dominant consideration in the juvenile justice process, or, that
delinquents should receive their “just deserts,” and that the main priority should be the
protection and welfare of society? Which juvenile justice model—the Welfare Model or
Justice Model—corresponds with the approach you selected, and why? Explain and
defend your views.
11.) Regarding Muncie and Goldson’s article, what is their main critique of the juvenile
justice system in England and Wales? What are the limitations on comparative analysis
of juvenile justice that they describe, and how, if at all, can those be overcome? What
does “youth justice with integrity” mean to you, and how can that be achieved? Is their
proposal realistic, or idealistic?
12.) The United States signed the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), but
has never become a party to it through ratification by the Senate. Why do you think we
haven’t done so? Should we accede (i.e., become a party) to this treaty? Why or why not?
Module 11: Japan: Examples of Effectiveness and Borrowing
13.) Do you think American police could improve their effectiveness through adapting
some version of static deployment like the Japanese koban or chuzaisho call boxes, or
more of a service role emphasizing social services over fighting crime? Would the
American people accept that sort of change? Are there some areas or circumstances
where it might work better than others?
14.) Are there any other elements of Japanese society or culture that could be adopted by,
or adapted to, the American criminal justice system, such as an emphasis on
contextualism, collectivism, harmony, or bureaucratic informalism? Why or why
not? How does Reichel’s discussion of the “wiring and shaping of bonsai trees” relate to
your conclusions or assertions? Considering the concluding section of this chapter in
Reichel’s book (pp. 321-324), why do you believe Reichel chose to explore the example
of the Japanese system in greater depth than he did for other countries, and what are the
key lessons or points to be learned from this case study?
15.) Would American citizens ever embrace a more dynamic partnership with police as
they do in Japan in terms of crime prevention, including robust neighborhood watch
programs, and supporting regular door-to-door contacts from police seeking information
about residents and neighborhood activities? Why or why not?
Module 12: International Perspectives on Race, Gender, Class, Mental Illness,
Victimization, and Human Rights
16.) Which, if any, of the feminist perspectives (i.e., Liberal, Radical, Marxist, Socialist,
Postmodern, or Black/critical Race feminism) or approaches (i.e., Sameness, Difference,
Dominance) described by Burgess-Proctor are “correct” or valid and useful in your view?
Explain your understanding of an “intersectional approach” to gender that she proposes.
17.) Considering Sparr’s article on the debate over allowing a criminal defense in
international criminal cases of diminished mental capacity or responsibility due to
personality disorders, what is your view? Should this defense be restricted with severe
tests or limited exceptions in those types of cases (e.g., genocide, war crimes, crimes
against humanity), or should it be broadly allowed?
18.) Considering Spiga’s article regarding redress and justice for victims in international
criminal cases or proceedings, is justice sufficiently served if the perpetrators are
prosecuted and sentenced? Is there a legal, practical way for individual victims to
participate, be heard, and receive reparations/compensation in cases of that scale or
magnitude involving so many potential victims?

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