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Transmission Model of Partial Discharges on
Medium Voltage Cables
Martin Fritsch , Student Member, IEEE, and Martin Wolter , Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—Medium voltage cables are poor transmitters of signals with high frequency spectrum such as partial discharges. The
propagating signals are strongly attenuated and distorted depending on the transmitted distance. In order to understand this process,
this article provides a model to simulate the transmission of such
signals on medium voltage cables. Compared to earlier approaches,
this model does not neglect the wave character of the high frequency signals. Therefore, to describe the signal transmission, a
comprehensible solution of the telegrapher’s equations is provided.
To work with this solution, the propagation constant of the medium
voltage cable used must also be known. This propagation constant
is calculated on the basis of the individual cable layers, considering
all ohmic and dielectric losses. In contrast to previous methods, all
primary line constants are modeled frequency dependent. The final
transmission model is able to predict the spectrum of a transmitted
signal at any distance from its origin. Validation measurements
show that prediction and measurement agree with good accuracy.
A possible application of the developed model is the investigation
of the transmission of partial discharges on medium voltage cables.
This model is probably also suitable for high voltage cables.
Index Terms—Attenuation, cable model, high-frequency, partial
discharges, power cables, propagation constant, transmission lines,
transmission model, XLPE.
P ARTIAL discharges (PD) are small dielectric breakdowns
within an electrical insulation system. They can occur
localized at any defective points in the insulation. In contrast
to the short circuit, the space between the two conductors is
not completely bridged by the discharge. Thus, PD activity can
last for a while and successively damage the insulation. They
mainly occur on the operating equipment of electrical power
transmission systems under high-voltage stresses. By measuring
the PD, defects can be detected in time and power outages can
be avoided.
The discharge manifests itself as a transient electromagnetic
pulse. The pulse width is usually in the range of a few nanoseconds. In the frequency domain, such nanosecond pulses consist
Manuscript received October 29, 2020; revised January 11, 2021; accepted
February 18, 2021. Date of publication February 23, 2021; date of current
version January 24, 2022. This work was supported by the European Regional Development Fund under Project Low Cost Teilentladungsmessung
(ZS/2018/12/96267). Paper no. TPWRD-01588-2020. (Corresponding author:
Martin Fritsch.)
The authors are with the Institute of Electric Power Systems,
Otto von Guericke University, D-39106 Magdeburg, Germany (e-mail:;
Color versions of one or more figures in this article are available at https:
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2021.3061201
of a wide spectrum of frequencies from 0 Hz to tens of MHz.
The shorter the pulse duration is, the wider the corresponding
frequency spectrum becomes. The maximum frequency component of most PD should be in the range of 3–100 MHz, which
corresponds to the high-frequency (HF) and lower very-highfrequency (VHF) range. When HF signals are mentioned in the
following article, this frequency range is meant.
The broadband PD pulses usually have to propagate from
their point of origin to a measuring device via a transmission
line (TL), e.g. overhead lines or power cables. This propagation
distorts the initial impulse and reduces the bandwidth of the
measurable spectrum depending on the distance traveled. To
model and simulate this process, a complete understanding of
the propagation behavior of the TL used is necessary. A suitable
model can then describe the transmission of PD, as well as all
other HF signals, on the TL. In this article such a model is
presented, where power cables are used as TL. The investigations
are carried out using a medium-voltage (MV) cable with a
nominal voltage of 20 kV. This cable is representative of all MV
cables of different voltage levels, as their structure is always very

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