Travel Demand and the 3D’s: Density, Diversity and Design
Cervero, R., and K. Kockelman. 1997. Travel demand and the 3Ds: Density, diversity, and design.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 2:199-219.
Summary: Cervero and Kockelman question the relationship between the built
environment and travel in correlation with the three dimensions, Density, Diversity and
Design. In more detail, Cervero and Kockelman evaluate the 3D’s impact trip rates and
resident’s choice of travel in San Francisco. Cervero and Kockelman use a combination
of data, land-use records, and field survey to conclude that 3D’s correlate with the
reduction of trip rates. This study finds that by increase compact, diverse and pedestrian-
oriented neighborhoods, it will have a positive influence on the manner in which
individuals travel.
Credentials: Robert Cervero is a professor and chair of the department of City and
Regional Planning at the University of California Berkley. Coauthor, Kara Kockelman is
a Professor of Transportation, Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering at The
University of Texas at Austin. She holds a PhD in Civil Engineering from The University
of California Berkeley.
Source Review: This source is relevant to the issue of transit-oriented development in the
Montreal, as it shows the relationship between the 3D’s: Density, Diversity, Design, and
the manner in which individuals travel. Which can help influence the solutions to
transportation issues within Montreal.

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